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Indigenous Peoples around the world affirm that the relationship between peoples and nature cannot be separated from their knowledge (science) and values of their diverse societies. Indigenous Peoples and local communities can assist in creating a more sustainable future for all if their rights are respected and they receive increased and direct support.

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The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, 13 September 2007. It establishes a universal framework of minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the indigenous peoples of the world and it elaborates on existing human rights standards and fundamental freedoms as they apply to the specific situation of Indigenous Peoples.

In Montreal, 2022, the nations of the world agreed on a package of measures deemed critical to addressing the dangerous loss of biodiversity and restoring natural ecosystems. Convened under UN auspices, chaired by China, and hosted by Canada, the 15th Conference of Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” (GBF), including four goals and 23 targets for achievement by 2030.

On June 15, 2016, after nearly 30 years of advocacy and negotiation, the Organization of American States (OAS) adopted the American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The OAS is a regional intergovernmental organization of 35 member countries of the Americas, including the United States. The American Declaration offers specific protection for indigenous peoples in North America, Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at the UN Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris, France, on 12 December 2015. It entered into force on 4 November 2016. The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations together to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.

This Convention applies to:

  • (a) tribal peoples in independent countries whose social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community, and whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by special laws or regulations;

  • (b) peoples in independent countries who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, or a geographical region to which the country belongs, at the time of conquest or colonisation or the establishment of present state boundaries and who, irrespective of their legal status, retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions.

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Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, A/77/238


A Presentation on Inclusive Conservation presented by WWF

A report documenting and compiling outcomes from 4 regional consultations with Indigenous Peoples and local community representatives led by Tribal Link Foundation in collaboration with WWF


The Declaration on the Rights of Peasants, officially United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas, is an UNGA resolution on Human rights with "universal understanding", adopted by the United Nations in 2018


Parliaments play a central role in enacting legislation that recognizes indigenous peoples’ rights and adopting budgetary measures to implement those rights, both of which are critical enablers to drive the implementation of the UN Declaration at the national level. This Handbook aims to be a practical instrument to enable parliamentarians around the world to understand indigenous peoples’ rights better and to provide practical ideas for the implementation of the UN Declaration.  It also presents good practices in relation to the recognition and exercise of indigenous peoples’ rights in different regions of the world. The publication is the result of cooperation between the SPFII, OHCHR, IFAD, UNDP and IPU.


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February 2021

To address the ongoing global biodiversity crisis, conservation approaches must be underpinned by robust in-formation. Canada is uniquely positioned to contribute to meeting global biodiversity targets, with some of the world’s largest remaining intact ecosystems, and a commitment to co-application of Indigenous ways of knowing alongside scientific, socioeconomic, and other approaches.

December 2019

"...we argue that co-management is not just an administrative arrangement but also a state-ratified  international rights regime, and accordingly, that it cannot do other than undermineIndigenous self-determination and imperil Indigenous peoples’ cultural heritage. We suggest that cultural heritage can only thrive by being actively engaged with in situ: via the living practice of Indigenous governance.


"Substantial increases in the pace, scale, and effectiveness of conservation will be required to abate the ongoing loss of global biodiversity and simultaneous ecological degradation. Concurrently, the need for conservation to respect inherent human rights, including the rights and title of Indigenous Peoples, is increasingly recognized. Here, we describe the often overlooked role that resurgent Indigenous-led governance could have in driving rapid, socially just increases in conservation. Whereas Indigenous resurgence spans all aspects of governance, we focus on three aspects that highlight both the necessity and nascent potential of supporting resurgent Indigenous-led governance systems as they relate to conservation of lands and seas."


This article provides analysis of the issues relating to movement towards new models for Indigenous-led conservation in light of Canada’s initiatives for greater protected areas representation through Target 1. We provide a background on Canada’s Pathway to Target 1, which is based on Target 11 from the Aichi Biodiversity Targets set forth by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). We contemplate the past, present and future of colonization and reconciliation in Canada, and consider the influence of international declarations, programs and initiatives on the potential for the formation of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas (IPCAs).

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